大饼说汽车
新浪微博
微信
当前位置:大饼说汽车网 » 舞蹈

惯性约束聚变混合驱动点火新方法 | 本周物理学讲座

1惯性约束聚变混合驱动点火新方法

报告人:贺贤土 院士,北京应用物理与计算数学研究所

时间:1月16日(周三)10:30

单位:中科院理论物理所

地点:新楼6620报告厅

激光驱动惯性约束聚变(ICF)主要目的是为了聚变能源、国防应用和高能量密度物理研究。目前国际上有两种ICF点火方法:直接驱动(ID)和间接驱动(DD)。DD是利用强激光直接作用在内含氘氚燃料的靶球烧蚀层表面,电子传热产生高温、高压等离子体驱动靶球内爆动力学,使整体燃料达到高压缩并实现燃料中心高温热斑点火。热斑放能加热相邻高密度燃料,产生热核燃烧波进一步点燃整体燃料,放出大量聚变能。ID是激光能量转换为高温辐射后烧蚀氘氚燃料靶球烧蚀层表面形成高压,发生与DD相同的内爆动力学和热核聚变燃烧过程。ID虽然比DD效率低,但辐射烧蚀能使靶球烧蚀层表面不均匀性快速光滑化。2012年开始,美国在国家点火装置(NIF)上用0.35微米波长、主脉冲约3.5-4纳秒、最大输出能量约2百万焦耳激光进行了大量ID点火实验,结果聚变释放能量最大只有约2.5%激光能量,实验失败。

总结NIF实验失败基础上,我们提出了间接-直接驱动组合的混合驱动(HD)点火模型,吸取了ID和DD优点,同时克服了它们的缺点。HD分两个阶段,第一阶段用较低辐射温度ID内爆预压缩靶球,同时,辐射烧蚀靶球烧蚀层表面膨胀产生了 一个大尺度冕区等离子体。第二阶段发生在ID后期,具有平顶脉冲的DD激光在ID冕区等离子体中临界面上被吸收,形成一个超声电子热波从临界面向较远的辐射烧蚀阵面传播。当慢化到声波时形成高压压缩波,后者在稳定的DD激光支持下像一个“雪耙”,不斷地把在压缩波阵面前低的冕区等离子体密度堆积为高密度。另一方面,靶球烧蚀层不斷被烧蚀,这样,在“雪耙”和辐射烧蚀阵面之间形成一个高密度区,从而产生了压力比传统ID烧蚀压高多倍的驱动内爆的HD压力,实现了 “雪耙''模型增压过程。

2Testing Left Right Symmetry in the Left-Right Symmetric Model in future collider

报告人:李浩林,中科院理论物理所

时间:1月15日(周二)10:00

单位:北京师范大学

地点:物理楼106

We assess the sensitivity of the LHC, its high energy upgrade, and a prospective 100 TeV hadronic collider to the Dirac Yukawa coupling of the heavy neutrinos in left-right symmetric models (LRSMs). We focus specifically on the trilepton final state in regions of parameter space yielding prompt decays of the right-handed gauge bosons (W R ) and neutrinos (N R ). In the minimal LRSM, the Dirac Yukawa couplings are completely fixed in terms of the mass matrices for the heavy and light neutrinos. In this case, the trilepton signal provides a direct probe of the Dirac mass term for a fixed W R and N R mass. We find that while it is possible to discover the W R at the LHC, probing the Dirac Yukawa couplings will require a 100 TeV pp collider. We also show that the observation of the trilepton signal at the LHC would indicate the presence of a non-minimal LRSM scenario.

3Threshold-less Cherenkov radiation in hyperbolic metamaterial

报告人:刘仿,清华大学

单位:清华大学
时间:1月15日(周二)10:00

地点:物理系理科楼C302

Cherenkov radiation (CR) is the electromagnetic wave generated by moving charges passing through a dielectric medium with velocity larger than a certain threshold. To generate CR in natural medium, the electron energy should be as large as hundreds to thousands of keV. We demonstrate in hyperbolic metamaterial that there is no velocity threshold for electron to generate CR. Based on this threshold-less CR, the first on-chip integrated free electron light source was realized. This work opens up the possibility of exploring high performance on-chip integrated free-electron optoelectronic devices.

4中国现代化进程中的科学事业

报告人:张柏春,中科院自然科学史研究所

时间:1月16日(周三)14:00

单位:中科院理论物理所

地点:新楼6620报告厅

5Charge Dynamics at Semiconductor Surfaces Investigated by Time Resolved Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

报告人:Martin Wenderoth

时间:11月17日(周四)10:00

单位:中科院物理研究所

地点:M楼253会议室

The combination of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and optical excitation merges two successful experimental techniques in solid-state physics. The combination of optical pump-probe techniques with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) enables us to get atomic resolution of an STM with time resolution on the ns time scale, i.e. well beyond the bandwidth of the current amplifier. This approach provides the prospect to resolve surface dynamics on the atomic scale. More specifically, optical excitation and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) is discussed to study the carrier dynamics at the GaAs(110) surface. By illuminating the tunnel contact between a tip and an n-doped GaAs crystal, we generate electron-hole pairs, which will be separated in the tip-induced space charge region (SCR).  A detailed spectroscopic analysis shows that photo-excited charge carriers, trapped in a local region beneath the STM tip, contribute to the tunneling current. By adjusting the current in a controlled manner we are able to actively access different screening conditions of the electric potential at the surface. Studying the time evolution of the photo-induced tunnel current gives access to the charge dynamics. We discuss different processes determining the relaxation characteristic of the excited system. By using the lateral resolution of the STM, the influence of single dopants on the relaxation dynamics of the system is investigated. We discuss the impact of these defects in terms of their depth dependent binding energy of the donors.

6天道酬勤---我的人生和科研感悟兼谈聚合物太阳电池光伏材料最新研究进展

报告人:李永舫 院士,中国科学院化学研究所

时间:1月18日(周五)10:00

单位:中科院半导体研究所

地点:半导体研究所图书馆101会议室

7Discoveries and potential discoveries of new exotic hadron particles at colliders

报告人:Kai Yi,University of Iowa

时间:1月18日(周五)10:30

单位:清华大学

地点:物理系理科楼C302

The discoveries of numerous new bound quark states since 2003 have revitalized interest in the spectroscopy of exotic bound quark and antiquark systems. These structures do not fit easily into the standard quark model. Proposals like four quark (plus one antiquark) states and other hybrid states have been suggested as explanations. Since 2009, several new bound states have been reported by experiments at colliders. The developing story on our understanding of these structures from collider experiments like CDF, LHCb, CMS, D0, BaBar and BES will be discussed, including the motivation for these new exotic hadron states and potential new physics.

8Transport in epitaxial graphene on the nanoscale

报告人:Martin Wenderoth

时间:1月18日(周五)16:00

单位:北京大学

地点:Room W663, Physics Building, Peking University

The transport properties of epitaxial graphene have been subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations since its invention. Besides electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering, the charge transport is determined by structural defects such as impurities, substrate steps or monolayer/bilayer junctions. The latter are leading to a spatially varying potential landscape as well as an inhomogeneous current density. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy combined with a potentiometric extension, called Scanning Tunneling Potentiometry (STP), has opened a way to study these transport properties down to the nanometer scale. Using an STP setup based on a home-built low-temperature STM operating down to 6 K and applicable magnetic field of up to 6T, we have investigated the sheet resistance of graphene focusing on charge transport across different localized defects on a sub-nanometer scale. We find that the voltage drop at a monolayer-bilayer boundary in graphene clearly extends spatially up to a few nanometers into the bilayer and hence is not located strictly at the structural defect. We explain this behavior by the weak coupling between the two bilayer sheets. From magneto-transport STP measurements mapping the local electrochemical potential as a function of the applied magnetic field, we have extracted the local charge carrier concentration by the emerging Hall field. Additionally, we show that the defect resistance at local defects such as steps, wrinkles and ML/BL-junctions remains constant for all magnetic fields applied here. To determine local resistances quantitatively, the local driving field as well as the local current density are needed. While STP is measuring the local chemical potential with high precision, the local current density is a priory unknown. In all STP studies up to now, the local current density is replaced by an averaged value, e.g. given by the total current and the geometry of the sample. Graphene grown on 6H-silicon carbide (0001) prepared by polymer assisted sublimation growth (PASG) are characterized by a high degree of a spatial homogeneity. This allows analyzing transport properties quantitatively on the nanometer scale. We demonstrate this new possibility by determining the sheet resistance as a function of the stacking sequence of 6H-SiC. At 8 Kelvin, highly resolved STP measurements show a significant variation of up to 240% demonstrating the strong influenced of the underlying substrate on a local scale.




更多报告信息:中国物理学会期刊网学术讲座列表


十大热门文章

1. 那棵消失的树—回忆导师张首晟

2. 啁啾脉冲放大技术——从超快激光技术到超强物理世界

3. 超短超强激光驱动新型粒子加速器:机遇和挑战

4. 飞秒激光放大的奠基性发明及其能力边界的突破

5. 《科学》评出2018年度十大科学突破事件

6. 时空克莱因瓶上的热力学——从二维生物的奇妙旅行到共形量子态的路径积分

7. 量子十问之三:量子技术能将人“瞬间”转移到别的星球上吗?| 郭光灿

8. 国际单位制基本量的新定义

9. 超导“小时代”之三十八:走向超导新时代

10. 二维铁电性:一泓秋水映

END





相关报道